In English, for example, the relativized argument moves from a vP-internal position to Spec CP, in as in Kunle ri mi see lsg ‘kunle saw me. The examples below are used to support this claim. I argue, based on the data presented, that the verb ni occupies u and takes the possessum ile as its complement. In the structure that I propose, which for now I call X P , the Possessor occupies the Specifier position in the base structure whereas the Possessum is in the complement position. What this shows is that whenever an entity is adjoined to a phrase, and there is movement of that phrase, the adjunct can move with the phrase. The verb pa ‘ k i l l ‘ in 15a is eventive whereas korira ‘hate’ in 15b is stative.

A comparison of a house of John’s where the possessum moves with John’s house shows that the former has a kind of “mild” topic reading Muhlbauer, personal communication. This is going to be one focus for future research. I also argued that ti-constructions in non-genitive environments are prepositional phrases, some of which are preverbal while others are post-verbal. IP-syntactic structure IP b. In the following chapters, I provide both empirical and theoretical evidence for each proposal. R Dupe kekere] [tj bag Poss’r small b.

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However in the surface syntax 43the possessum NP actually precedes the possessor NP. In 7athere is the quantifier die ‘few’ co-occurring with aja ‘dog’ and in 7b the numeral meje ‘seven’ co-occurs with the same noun and in both cases, the noun is interpreted as plural. Further, the complement of ti i.

The structure in 45a accounts for the example in 45b: Such alternative is not considered in this study. Ajiboye holds wkaiwa Master’s degree in Yoruba language, which to us here is proof that he is capable of successfully undertaking studies and original doctoral degree. Eyin-Oju does not know her parents nor how she came into the world.


Jakendoff Both the preposition ‘of and the Saxon’s in English are treated as part of the possessor NP. The tree structure in 44 illustrates how the snowball movement derives the Yoruba data above. In the b examples of -the ri-phrase immediately follows the verb, and in the c examples, the ri-phrase is sentence final; such outputs are ungrammatical. For this reason, Joruba do not consider bia noun as well.

They do not denote actions that take place, as they involve no activity van Voorst The claim is that when it is covert, this is due to phonological rules that prevent the MTS from being pronounced.

This claim is left to further research. Join Facebook to connect with Ogungbe Deborah and others you may know. Then he got up and genuflected to the left, then to the right. I V P yoo je isu ‘wil l eat yam’ d. Awa ti 6 nf ere ta a lpl C yorubq have statue sell 3sg ‘We that own a statue sold it. However, such forced contexts are not considered here. A w o n tf 6 nf ere ta a i lp l C 3sg have statue sell 3sg ‘They that own a statue sold it.

Third, I am grateful for the supply of a lot of relevant academic materials even at short notice and for making his library in Boston available to me each time I visited him. Similarly, in 95b Bgse and gmg rere ‘nice girl’ refer to the same person.

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When my wife asked whose statue did I see, I say 91b. In the case under review, movement of the operator is overt. Awa tf a nf ere ta moviw lpl C 3pl have statue sell 3sg ‘We that own a statue sold it. For the other two types of genitives, ‘However, discourse linking is also possible with relational nouns in an appropriate context.


The ti element, like a true complementizer, occupies C and it takes the vP as its complement.

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Finally this vowel is assigned the default M tone. The operator is base-generated in the object position and raises to Spec CP; this movement is internal to CP. This vowel is obligatory only when the possessor the noun in second position is consonant-initial.

Above all, she knows how to make me feel less insecure about my ideas while challenging me to make them better even if it is going to take extra time and pain. I propose that in both contexts, ti heads a defective CP, as in Finally, I also feel honoured by their occasional visits to me.

Nominal plus ti construction The examples in 18 illustrate these three types. Apart from the fact that H-tone ti and M-tone ti are analyzed as complementizers, the issue of the landing site for the moved NP is also very significant. This evidence comes from the grammatical particles that mark the two constructions.

Reduced relative clauses are found only in genitive constructions whereas full relative clauses are not restricted; as such, they can be found in genitive or non-genitive constructions. Relating multiple movements to Case, the claim is that multiple movements of the Possessum induce a focus effect.